H=Horticulture Research Center, So. Burlington, USDA zone 4b
Spring 2007 bulbs | Perennial trials listing (as of 2006)
photos: summer 1997 | 5/12/00 | 5/19/00 | 5/28/00 | 6/3/00 | 6/20/00
U=UVM greenhouses [view, 47K], Burlington, including outdoor student garden test beds, USDA zone 5b
M= Perry's Perennials, Milton, USDA zone 4a
Winter soil temperatures, Summer Soil Moisture, Climate data, Sunflower trials 2000 | 2002
W=Waterfront Park All-America selections flower display garden, Burlington, USDA zone 5b
Current | Past Studies
NEW 3/13 Slide show (ppt): Coralbells, Coneflowers, and Cold Climate Perennial Trials
Controlled Freezing, Hardiness of perennials:
In Fall 2012-Winter 2013, controlled freezing studies to the usual 5 subfreezing temperatures of 28, 23, 18, 12, 7F (-2, -5, -8, -11, -14C) in freezing chambers, for a minimum half hour to 2 hours maximum at each, was conducted in early January and late February on 7 perennial species, including 2 coneflowers ('Lucky Star' and 'PowWow Wild Berry'). Deacclimation studies were conducted on Coreopsis 'Route 66' and Leucanthemum 'Becky' on exposure to 60F for 1,3 or 5 days prior to exposure to the 5 subfreezing temperatures. Similar studies are planned for winter 2013-14.
2013: National Ornamental Grass Trials
The zone 4 Milton (VT) site is one of 17 selected across the U.S. to trial new ornamental grasses, under the direction of Dr. Mary Meyer of the University of Minnesota. These were planted in summer 2012 and will be evaluated the following 3 years. Initially, with 4 replicates randomized of each cultivar, will be 5 selections of bluestem (Schizachyrium) and 17 of switchgrass (Panicum).
2013: New cultivar performance and hardiness trials
Over 200 new cultivars are being evaluated in trials in USDA zone 4b for performance, flower time and color, hardiness, pest problems, and potential for future studies or use in the region. Other trial sites include another in zone 4 (Full Circle Gardens, Essex Jct), zone 4b (Milton and the Justin Morrill Homestead in Strafford), and zone 5b (Burlington Waterfront Park). We continue as an official test site for introductions from Plant Haven. Blooms of Bressingham, Ball Horticulture, as well as various other firms varying by year.
2008-present. Coralbells field hardiness
In 2008, field trials were begun on coralbells (Heuchera) field hardiness, and continue with replacements and new additions with 90 cultivars as of fall 2011.
2011-present. Coneflower field hardiness
In 2011, field trials were begun on coneflower (Echinacea) field hardiness, and continue with replacements and new additions with 80 cultivars as of fall 2012. I
2013: Annuals are also being trialed at the Waterfront Park in an official All America Selections Flower Display Garden which also include specialty annuals courtesy of DS Cole Growers and Pleasant View Gardens in New Hampshire.
2012-14: Evaluating Flowering Plant Selection for Pollinator Habitat Enhancement: Open-Pollinated Natives vs. Native Cultivars (pollinatorgardens.org)
2012-2014 a study will be performed at three sites including a perennial and
vegetable/berry grower, to determine effect on pollinators of native species
compared to cultivars (nativars) of these species. This project will be
conducted by graduate assistant Annie White, and is funded largely by the SARE
farmer/partnership program, with support too from Greenworks, Vermont. (overview
Past StudiesShrub rose evaluation (H,M):
Several dozen perennials over several years are being frozen in controlled chest freezers to determine root killing temperatures; effects of cold intensity, duration, cycling, and rate of drop. These included heathers (Calluna) during 2001 and 2002.. Other freezing studies examined various factors affecting hardiness such as temperature cycling and rates of drop, and the effect on hardiness of dianthus, foamflower and perennial geranium. In part, these were from the M.S. thesis research of Cheryl Bruce (see abstract and slide show), Andrea Luchini (2003 results , summary, thesis abstract, and slide show), and Sarah Kingsley Richards (Dec. 2011 article in Journal of Environmental Horticulture | thesis abstract | presentation). Results of these, and studies of previous grad students, are summarized in leaflet COH31.
In 2009-2010 studies were begun on the hardiness of Heuchera
particularly villosa hybrids
(funding courtesy of New Hampshire Plant Endowment). Plants were
frozen to the five usual freezer temperatures (-2,-5,-8,-11,-14C) on
two dates in January and March. Cultivars under study included:
(links to result photos)
'Caramel', 'Mocha', 'Blackout', 'Frosted Violet',
(2009-2010 results). In 2010-11 (results) five additional cultivars were frozen similarly, with few differences among temperatures from an early January freezing, but with significant differences from a late February freezing (plant survival decreasing significantly at 18F and below).
In Fall 2011-Winter 2012, Delaware Tiarella, Kahori Dianthus, and
Bronze Wave Heuchera were acclimated for various times (none, 1, 2 or 4 weeks)
at 40F after a period of temperatures 50F and above, then frozen to various
temperatures to determine hardiness. Tiarella and Heuchera also were
subjected to two or no cycles below freezing (-7 to -9C and 0 to -2C) prior to
controlled freezing. Studies will be done on controlled freezing of 3
coneflower cultivars (White Swan, Pica Bella, Pixie Meadowbrite) both in January
and late February, similar to recent studies with coralbells. Controlled
freezing also will be done on 4 other perennial cultivars in January (Raspberry
Wine monarda, Raspbery Regal coralbells, Sherwood Purple phlox, Global Warming
Shrub rose evaluation (H,M):
Over 5 dozen cultivars of shrub roses (list and characters), emphasizing new series such as the Parkland, Meidiland, Explorer and David Austin ones, were evaluated among these sites and in cooperation with the University of Maine (Dr. Lois Stack) for hardiness, performance and disease resistance (rose ratings (updated 9.05) article on top 15 rated to date).
photos: June 2003, north side | June 2003, inside
Effect of soil moisture on hardiness
monitoring field soil moisture, and the effect on freezing of wet or dry watering regimes (below 10% and above 20% soil moisture content) on 3 cultivars (funding by the NH Horticulture Endowment); first year summary, first year photo Astilbe dry, Astilbe wet (second year results forthcoming)
New overwintering fleece cover in various layers on 20 cultivars, including a sandwich of straw between white poly layers, and one or two layers of fleece (thick felt material) with and without a white poly covering (funding by New England Greenhouse Conference; plant donations courtesy of Creek Hill Nursery, PA), compared with same cultivars under controlled freezing. Performed 2003--04, 2004-05. Results forthcoming.
Photos: before covering fall 2003 | after covering 2003 | before 2004 | after 2004 | close-up 2004
Media and fertility
Three cultivars (Hemerocallis Stella d'Oro, Geranium 'Max Frei', Dianthus 'Arctic Fire') were potted in 12 combinations of media and fertility to observe effects on growth after one season. Media include commercial peat-lite, local organic, and German peat-lite products. Fertility include organic liquid, standard liquid, and new color-coded Osmocote products.
Fertility and media 2003 results | Fertility and media 2004 results
Effects of composts and
fertility on perennials
In summer 2008, five perennials (Ice Dance Carex, Becky Shasta daisy, Brandywine foamflower, Apricot Delight yarrow, and Biokovo geranium) were grown in various combinations of a commercial compost medium (Vermont Organics), with synthetic and organic liquid fertilizers, to monitor any labor savings (watering, fertilizer) and plant growth. (funded by Perennial Plant Association)
In summer 2009, six perennials (Ice Dance, Becky, Bevans geranium, Rhapsody in Blue salvia, Brandywine, and Caramel coralbells ) were grown with three fertilizers (2 rates of a 4-3-2 organic poultry product and Nutricoat) and two media (ProMix BX as a control with a new cow manure based product from Vermont Organics Reclamation also with coffee wastes and perlite 4:1:1 v:v:v) to determine possibility of the latter medium for production.
Beginning in late summer 2010, and continuing into early summer 2011, two revised media from this firm with 11 cultivars was compared against two commercial media, with no practical differences among media. 2011 media report | 2011 media and cultivar photos
Powdery mildew studies (U):
New cultivars (15) of beebalm were established in 1998 (H) for evaluation for genetic resistance to powdery mildew in a randomized complete block design. Plants were evaluated for drought, weed and cold stress early 2000, then potted for subsequent mildew studies at the UVM greenhouse (U). Due to poor growth in pots, plants were put into field studies in Milton in 2003. Plants will be dug, divided, and potted this year for continued trials in pots.
During 2000 and 2001, 5 organic controls were tested on Snow White bee balm (see article below) in containers (U). In 2003 a study with Phlox pan. Mt Fuji was established to look at the effect of salt and milk solutions on mildew, as have proved effective on grapes and vegetable crops.
Beginning in 2003, 24 new cultivars of garden phlox will be compared in a randomized complete block design for resistance to powdery mildew in field studies in Milton. (8/03 photo). No results were obtained this first year, due to poor mildew pressure, with the study to be repeated in 2004.
[Slide Show on past studies of powdery mildew on phlox and monarda.]
1998 Scientific article on powdery mildew among bee balm cultivars
1999 Scientific article on organic powdery mildew controls on phlox
2000 Scientific article on organic powdery mildew controls on bee balm
Article on Bee Balm cultivar stress results
Powdery Mildew on Phlox and Monarda leaflet(new 12/01)
Powdery Mildew Controls on Phlox and Monarda leaflet (new 12/01)
grass hardiness (H,M, U)--1999 data:
At 3 sites in the Champlain Valley (USDA zones 4a, 4b and 5b), at least 2 dozen cultivars of ornamental grasses were evaluated over a five year period for winter hardiness, as well as other landscape features. Many are recent introductions to the U.S. from Germany including new ones this year. Results were included with those from an extensive collaborative national effort.
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